Monday, 21 November 2011

NABARD's refinance is available to State Co-operative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks (SCARDBs), State Co-operative Banks (SCBs), Regional Rural Banks (RRBs), Commercial Banks (CBs) and other financial institutions approved by RBI. While the ultimate beneficiaries of investment credit can be individuals, partnership concerns, companies, State-owned corporations or co-operative societies, production credit is generally given to individuals. NABARD has its head office at Mumbai, India..

Criteria for refinance
      Technical feasibility of the project and adequate response from prospective beneficiaries
      Financial viability and adequate incremental income to ultimate borrower to repay the loan within a reasonable period
       Organisational capability to ensure close supervision

ü      The refinance is provided to SCARDBs, SCBs, CBs and RRBs. However, the beneficiaries of the programme are partnership concerns, companies, state-owned corporations or cooperative societies. But, finally the assistance reaches the individuals, who are members of the primary credit institutions.

ü      The refinance is usually 50% to 95% of the project cost. The balance will be met by the banks and the concerned state governments or the Government of India in the case of SCARDBs. With a view to ensure credit flow to certain thrust areas, the quantum of refinance is enhanced to 100% as in the case of special category beneficiaries like SC/ST members and self help groups.

Institutions Eligible for Refinance:

  State Co-operative Agriculture & Rural Development Banks (SCARDBs)
  Regional Rural Banks (RRBs)
  State Co-operative Banks (SCBs)
  Commercial Banks (CBs)
  State Agricultural Development Finance Companies (ADFCs)
  Scheduled Primary Urban Co-operative Banks (PUCBs)
  North East Development Finance Corporation (NEDFC)
  Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs)


  Farm Sector :
Agriculture and allied activities such as minor irrigation, farm mechanization, land development, soil conservation, dairy, sheep/goat rearing, poultry, piggery, plantation/horticulture, forestry, fishery, storage and market yards, bio-gas and other alternate sources of energy, sericulture, apiculture, animals and animal driven carts, agro-processing, agro-service centres, etc.

  Non-Farm Sector :
Artisans, Small & Micro Enterprises, handicrafts, handlooms, power looms, etc

Loan Period :
  Upto a maximum of 15 years

Refinance Windows

  1. Automatic Refinance Facility (ARF): Automatic Refinance Facility (ARF) will be extended to the Commercial Banks/State Coop Banks/ Regional Rural Banks/Primary Urban Coop Banks/ADFCs/NEDFi/NBFCs without any upper ceiling on quantum of refinance, bank loan or TFO for all kinds of projects under Farm Sector (FS) & Non Farm Sector (NFS). However, ARF will be extended to the SCARDBs for projects with TFO up to `50.00 lakh for all kinds of projects under Farm Sector (FS) and Non- Farm Sector (NFS).
  2. Pre-sanction Procedure: In case, any bank intends to avail refinance under pre-sanction procedure, they may submit projects to NABARD.
  3. Project based lending ( Subject to Appraisal & Prior Sanction by NABARD )

Extent of Refinance

The extent of refinance will be as under:
  1. States in Eastern Region, North Eastern Region including Sikkim, Hilly States, Chhattisgarh and Lakshwadeep: 100% of eligible bank loans for all purposes.
  2. For Other Regions: 100% for all thrust areas as explained in Policy Circulars
  3. 95% for all other diversified purposes and 80% for Krishak Sathi Yojana. 70% to NBFCs for all eligible purposes.

Ultimate Borrowers

Although refinance is provided to SCARDBs/SCBs/CBs/RRBs/ADFCs/PUCBs/NEDFC the ultimate borrowers of investment finance may be individuals, proprietory/partnership concerns, companies, state-owned corporations or co-operative societies.

Interim finance

SCARDBs are being extended interim finance in order to enable them to provide investment credit to ultimate borrowers and avail refinance within 3 months against the same.

Types of Refinance Facilities

Credit Facilities
Commercial Banks
Long-term credit for investment purposes
Financing the working capital requirements of Weavers' Co-operative Societies (WCS) & State Handloom Development Corporations
Short-term Co-operative
Structure (State Co-operative Banks,
District Central Co-
operative Banks, Primary
Agricultural Credit Societies)
Short-term (crop and other loans)
Medium-term (conversion) loans
Term loans for investment purposes

Financing WCS for production and marketing purposes
Financing State Handloom Development Corporations for working capital by State
Co-operative Banks
Long-term Co-operative Structure
(State Co-operative
Agriculture and Rural
Development Banks,
Primary Co-operative
Agriculture and Rural
Development Banks)
Term loans for investment purposes
Pilot scheme for financing short term loans in three states
Regional Rural Banks (RRBs)
Short-term (crop and other loans)
Term loans for investment purposes
State Governments
Long-term loans for equity participation in
Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF) loans for infrastructure projects
Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) - Informal Credit Delivery System
Revolving Fund Assistance for various micro-credit delivery innovations and promotional projects under 'Credit and Financial Services Fund' (CFSF) and 'Rural Promotion Corpus Fund' (RPCF) respectively

Interest Rates


The rate of interest on refinance have been revised as under w.e.f 5 November 2011

Rate of interest as applicable in other than NER states & Sikkim (%)
Rate of interest as applicable in NER states & Sikkim (%)
Commercial Banks
10.50 (min)


Eligible Projects.

• Geographical areas and sectors to which credit is not flowing for various reasons; • Projects involving Sunrise technologies where risk perceptions of banks are very   high
• Thrust areas where NABARD has an important role to play
• Areas / projects where large outlays and long gestation period keep the banks  away.
• Projects involving longer repayment period.

Farm Sector Schemes

Village Adoption/Village development Plan, Backward Blocks, Bamboo Farming, MACs, Bio Fuels, Crop Insurance, Agriculture Commodities, SGSY, Farm Mechanisation, Land Purchase, Scheme for AgriClinic/ Agri-Business Centres (ACABCs), SEMFEX, Capacity Building for Adoption of Technology (CAT)
Agri Export Zone (AEZ), Contract Farming, Farmer's Club

Non-Farm Sector Schemes

1. Enterprise Loan Scheme (ELS)

The refinance schemes which are in force viz. Integrated Loan Scheme (ILS) and Composite Loan Scheme (CLS) have been merged and modified into a new scheme ie. Enterprise Loan Scheme (ELS).

Salient features

Institutions eligible - for drawal of refinance. Commercial Banks, Regional Rural Banks, State Co-operative Banks, State Co-operative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks and Scheduled Primary Urban Cooperative Banks.

Borrowers - Individuals, artisans, small entrepreneurs, groups of individuals, associations (formal and informal), proprietary/partnership firms, co-operative societies, registered institutions/ trusts, NGOs/voluntary agencies, private and public limited companies, etc financed by the above eligible institutions.

Purpose - To set up new units as well as for modernisation/ renovation/ expansion/diversification of existing units and also for replacement of old and obsolete machinery even if the units were not initially financed by the banks and refinanced by NABARD.
To change over to new process of manufacturing/introduction of new technology/ computerization, etc.  For Expansion/Diversification, any unit which is in existence for at least two years will be eligible.

Eligible activities - All manufacturing, processing, marketing and approved service activities in the SSI sector with emphasis on Cottage, Village, Tiny Industries, Rural Artisans and Rural Crafts. All activities in rural areas or benefiting rural areas that are income generating and/or employment generating, including all service sector activities, are eligible activities under NFS for refinance assistance.

Project Components - For block and/or working capital requirements of tiny/SSI/Service sector units.
In respect of cottage and village industries, artisans, etc, a component for consumption credit could be built in the Working Capital component keeping in view the value of the family labour engaged in the productive activity. If a unit avails Working Capital alone, the ceiling for refinance limit per unit shall be limited to Rs 10 lakh.

Repayment period of loan - The repayment period should be fixed between 2 years and 10 years with a need based moratorium of upto 18 months for individual cases, based on the debt servicing capacity of the borrower and taking into account the nature of activity to be financed, operating cycle, cash flow and the borrower’s sustenance needs.

2.Small Road and Water Transport Operators Scheme (SRWTO)

Borrowers - Individuals, groups of individuals including partnership/ proprietary firms and co-operative enterprises would be eligible for assistance under the scheme. The borrowers should be from the "rural areas" and should utilise the vehicle mainly for transportation of rural farm and non-farm products and inputs and passengers to/ from marketing centres.

Vehicles - The vehicle should be duly registered with Regional Transport Authority (RTA) as "public transport" vehicle.
The number of vehicles to be financed shall be subject to the ceiling on such number as stipulated by RBI for financing under priority sector lending (at present 10 vehicles).
Other t & c also to be complied.

Security and Insurance - The vehicle should be registered as 'public goods/ passenger carrier' with the Regional Transport Authority (RTA). The loan will be advanced against the hypothecation of the vehicle in favour of the financing institution. The hypothecation clause/ bank's lien should be noted with the RTA.
The vehicle should be comprehensively insured for the full value covering all risks. The insurance policy may be either in the joint names of the borrower and the bank or assigned in favour of the latter. The vehicle should be adequately insured at all times without any break.
The vehicle should be inspected periodically by the financing bank.

Repayment- Generally, the loan is repayable within 5 years with a moratorium period of 6 months.

3.Soft Loan Assistance Scheme for Margin Money

Objective - The objective of the scheme is to provide financial assistance to the prospective entrepreneurs who have the requisite talents and traits of entrepreneurship, but lack necessary monetary resources of their own for setting up units/implementing projects under NABARD refinance schemes for non-farm sector, SEMFEX II borrowers and innovative, high tech projects, export oriented units, agro-processing schemes, and agriculture graduates for setting up of Agriclinics and Agribusiness Centres covered under the farm sector.

Eligibility  - The loan assistance towards margin money will be available to the entrepreneurs/promoters comprising individuals, proprietary/partnership concerns, groups of individuals, industrial co-operative societies, government/quasi-government agencies, promotional agencies, development corporations, registered and charitable institutions and voluntary organisations.
Soft Loan Assistance for Margin Money will not be available for SRWTO schemes (with the exception to SEMFEX II borrowers) and Rural Housing.

Mode of Assistance
Margin Money assistance will be by way of soft loans to the entrepreneur/ promoter.

Scope of assistance
Margin money assistance shall be available to the deserving entrepreneurs of all categories covered under this scheme under ARF whether or not the financing bank avails refinance from NABARD, subject to the conditions stipulated in the following paragraphs.

Quantum of Assistance
The quantum of assistance will be determined, among other things, on the basis of the gap between the normal level of borrower's contribution (margin) prescribed by RBI and the borrower's own minimum contribution (stake) for the project to be stipulated by the bank and also the other subsidies/incentives/assistance, if any, provided by the Central/State Government(s).

Extent of refinance :
Refinance assistance to the financing banks will be provided to the extent of 100% of the margin money loan .

Rate of interest :
The refinance assistance provided against the loan for margin money will be, for the present, free of interest. However, the financing bank will be allowed to levy a service charge upto a maximum of 5% p.a (except for Agri-Clinic/Agri-Business where it is 2% p.a) simple rate at the discretion of the bank, on the outstanding amount of margin money loan. In the case of borrowers of SEMFEX-II, the banks may waive the service charge at their discretion.

Repayment period :
Margin Money loan will be recovered along with the term loan in suitable instalments.

Schemes under pre - sanction procedure

(i) Term Loan to SSI units (through CBs & Scheduled PCBs)


Individuals, Proprietary / Partnership concerns, Private/ Public Limited Companies, Promotional/ Developmental Organisations, State Level Federations/ Corporations, Joint Sector Undertakings.
Setting up of new units and modernisation/ renovation/ expansion/ diversification of existing units (other than agro-industries).

Eligible items for investment
Land and Site Development (including cost of land upto margin money required to be brought in by the borrower).
Construction of workshed (including civil structure, godowns for storage, market outlets and other essential amenities).
Plant & Machinery. (including machinery/ equipment required for packaging and preservation)
Equipment and tools.
Delivery van.
Project formulation and consultancy charges.
Preliminary and pre-operative expenses.
Margin for working capital.

Repayment period
3 to 10 years with moratorium of 12 months.
Debt Equity Ratio (DER) - 3 : 1

(ii) Term Loan to Industrial Co-operatives (through SCBs)

Industrial Co-operative Societies identified as viable/ potentially viable by the State Government.

Eligible items of investment
a) Acquisition of equipment and tools.   b)Construction of workshed.
c)Showroom.                           d)Godown.       e)Purchase of delivery van
(iii) Project Finance for Agro-Industries (through CBs, Scheduled PCBs & SCBs)

a) State level corporations such as agro-industries corporations, forest/ tribal development corporations, KVIC/ KVIB, state level cooperative societies/ federations, co-operative marketing/ processing and industrial societies, joint sector undertakings, registered societies in KVIC/ KVIB fold.

b) Public/ private limited companies, partnership firms and proprietary concerns.

Items eligible for term-loan assistance
Cost of land (upto the limit of margin to be brought in by the borrower), site development, construction of worksheds/ building, plant and machinery, equipment and tools, cost of technology upgradation, technical know-how and engineering, preliminary and pre-operative expenses, project formulation and consultancy fees, acquisition of transport vehicle, preservation including cold storage, packaging and marketing, etc.

Repayment period
3 to 10 years with moratorium of 12 months.

Debt Equity Ratio - 3 : 1

* * *

Tuesday, 4 October 2011

All about Section 25 Company


Companies which are formed for the following purpose are known as Section 25 Companies or Association not for Profit
  • For the purposes of promoting commerce, art, science, religion, charity to any other useful object
  • With intention to apply its profits or other income for promoting its objects, and • Which prohibits payment of any dividend to its members,
Section 25 Company is a voluntary association of person formed for promotional activities. Besides establishing a Trust and Society, the other alternative to establish a Non – Profit organization is Section 25 Company.
Section 25 Companies are formed as Public or Private Company having a limited liability under the Companies Act 1956. These companies can be formed with or without share capital, in case they are formed without capital, the necessary funds for carrying the business are brought in form of donations , subscriptions from members and general public.
Section 25 Companies can be formed only after obtaining the necessary licence from the Central Government, which imposes certain terms and conditions while granting the approval. In case the company fails to comply with the terms and condition at any point of time, the licence can be cancelled.
Section 25 Companies are not required to add the suffix Limited or Private Limited at the end of their name.
Due to their nature of business, the Government of India has relaxed the application of various provisions of the Companies Act on such companies.


Section 25 i.e. a non-profit company may be public or private. If the non-profit company is a private company a minimum of only two members is required to form it. However, if the non-profit from is for a public purpose, then a minimum of seven are needed.

1. Application for a name applying for availability of name to the Registrar of Companies is the first step towards registration of the non-profit company. Four names are to be suggested to the Registrar in prescribed Form.

2. Memorandum and Articles Memorandum and Articles of the non-profit company are required to be approved by the Regional Director and the ROC. The documents required for submission of application are:

i)             Three printed copies of the memorandum and articles of association of the applicant company, signed by all the promoters with full name, address and occupation (No stamp duty is payable on the Memorandum and Articles of Association)

ii)            A declaration by an advocate or a chartered accountant that the memorandum and articles of association have been drawn up in conformity with the provisions of the Act and that all the requirements of the Act and the rules made there under have been duly complied with, in respect of registration;

iii)           List of the names, addresses and occupation of the promoters, members of board of directors, name of companies, associations and other institutions in which promoters of the applicant company are directors or hold positions, description of the positions held by them (three copies)

iv)           Statement of assets and liabilities (“only existing company)

v)            Source of income of the Applicant Company and estimate of annual expenditure;

vi)           A statement giving a brief description of the work, if any, already done by the association and of the work proposed to be done by it after registration in pursuance of section 25;

vii)         A statement on grounds on which the application is made under section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956;

viii)        A declaration by each of the persons making the application that he/she is of sound mind, not an undischarged solvent, not convicted by a court for any offence and does not stand disqualified under section 203 of the Companies Act, 1956 for appointment as director.

 3. License under section 25 An application for the license under 25 for the company is to be submitted to the Regional Director (Department of Company Affairs). The license essentially permits the word 'Limited' or 'Private Limited' to be deleted from name of the company. It could take upto 12 weeks after application to receive the license under section 25 of the Companies Act 1956. Pursuant to application to the Regional Director (within seven days thereafter), the applicant company has to publish a notice in a newspaper where the registered office is situate and certified copy of the notice to filed with the Regional director.
 4. Registration with ROC Registration certificate is normally granted within one month after filing section 25 licenses; Converting existing company to section 25 companies The Companies Act, 1956 also facilitates the conversion of an existing company to a non-profit company. Foreign Director There is no bar under Indian law for a foreigner to be a Director in a section 25 company, (relevant permissions prescribed under the Foreign Exchange Management Act.).



1 .Freedom in choice of name
Indian companies are required to  use the term ‘limited’ or ‘private limited’ as the case may be in their names as required by section 13. But section 25 companies are allowed to dispense with the use of term ‘limited’ or ‘private limited’ from their names. This helps the company to enjoy limited liability without disclosing to the public the nature of liability of its members.

2. Minimum Share Capital
Section 25 Companies have been exempted from this requirement regarding minimum share capital by insertion of sub-section (6) through Amendment Act of 2000. As such they can be registered even if they have share capital less than the statutory minimum.

IN INDIA, a NON-PROFIT ORGANISATION can be formed in the following three business structures only:
Section-25 Company.
So, you can form a NGO under section25company form and can enjoy its privileges.

4. Publication of Name
A section 25 company has been exempted from the provisions of  section 147 and as such is not required to mention its name and address as required in case of all other companies.

5. Time and Place of AGM
Section 25 Company are free to determine the date, place and time of its AGM according to their convenience and feasibility, provided the time, place and date of the AGM has been decided before hand by the Board of Directors

6. Notice of AGM
Section 25 Company can hold an AGM after giving a notice of 14 days length instead of 21 days as required by section 171(1). Therefore they can call an AGM at a short notice of 14 days instead of 21 days.

7.Maintaining of Books of Accounts
Section 25 Company is required to maintain books of account relating to a period of only four years instead of eight years immediately preceding the current year.

8.Service of Copies of Certain Document
A Section 25 Company is allowed to send the required documents at least fourteen days before the date of meeting instead of 21 days.

9.Right of Persons other that Retiring Director to stand for Directorship
If the Articles of the Section 25 Company provide for election of the Directors by ballot system then the provisions of section 257 will not apply to such a company and as a result a person who is not a retiring director and is intending to stand for directorship will not have to follow the procedure laid down by section 257. But if the Articles of the company do not provide for election of director by ballot then section 257 will have to be complied in whole.

10. Increase in Number of Directors
Section 25 Companies are exempted from section 259 and are thus free to increase the number of its directors without seeking approval of central Government.

11. Admission of partnership firm
Despite of the fact that law does not allow partnership firm to become a member of a body corporate as it does not have a legal personality of its own. But, still in case of section25 company, partnership firm is allowed to become its member.

12.Annual Returns of a Company not having Share Capital
Every company not having a share capital is required by provisions of section 160 to file within 60 days of every Annual General Meeting, a return with the Registrar . Section 25 Company without a share capital is also required to file returns with the Registrar as required by section 160 but it has been exempted from mentioning the particulars of the members who are presently with the company or have ceased to be members since holding of its last AGM.

13. Filing of Consent for Directorship
Every person who intends to stand for directorship in accordance with section 257 is required by section 264(1) to file with the company his consent to act as a director if he gets appointed as such. But this has been made non-applicable to the Section 25 Company and as such a person seeking appointment as director for first time need not file his consent in advance with the company for working as a director if appointed.

14. Board Meetings
Under section 285 the meeting of Board of Directors should be held atleast once in every three months and four meetings should be held in a year. However section 25 companies are required to hold meetings of Board of Directors/Executive Committee/Governing Committee only once in every six months but should have held four meetings in a year.

15. Quorum for Meetings
The required quorum for a board meeting of any company under section 287 is one/third of its total strength which is arrived at after deducting the number of interested directors from the t1otal number of directors on the Board or atleast two whichever is higher. But the section 25 company is exempt from this section to the extent that the required quorum for any board meeting is eight members or one/fourth of its total strength whichever is less provided it should not be less than two members in any case.

 16.Exercise of certain Powers
Under section 292 there are certain specified powers which a Board of Directors of the concerned company can exercise only by passing of resolution at the meeting. The Board can exercise all other powers by passing of resolutions by circulation instead of taking them at meetings by following the procedure specified in section 289 of the Act. However section 25 companies are allowed to decide following three matters by passing a resolution by circulation instead of at meetings:
1.                    the power to borrow moneys other than on debentures,
2.                    the power to invest funds of the company, and
3.                    the power to make loans.

17. Disclosure of Interest
Section 25 companies are allowed to conduct trade or business with private companies, firms or persons where some director may be having an interest provided such private company, firm or person regularly does trade or business in such a contract without seeking approval of Board again and again where the cost of such contracts exceeds five thousand rupees in a particular year in which such a contract is entered or seeking approval of central government where share capital of the company exceeds one crore rupees.

18.Maintenance of Registers of Contracts
Under section 301 a company is required to maintain register of all the contracts to which section 297 or 299 applies. But a section 25 company is exempt to the extent that it allowed to maintain register of only those contracts to which sub-sections (1) and (3) of section 297 apply. Thus they are exempted from maintaining registers of those contracts which are made in pursuance of sub-section (2) of section 297 or are covered by section 299.

19. Maintenance of Register of Directors
Under section 303 of the companies act every company is required to maintain a register containing particulars of its Directors, Managing Directors, Managers and Secretary in manner prescribed. These companies are further required to send to the Registrar of Company a duplicate in prescribed form containing all particulars of such register and a notification in duplicate informing the Registrar of nay changes within 30 days of such changes. Section 25 company are not required to notify changes among its directors, etc to the Registrar. They are only required to maintain Registers of their Directors, Managing Directors, Managers and Secretary in prescribed format containing specified particulars and updating the register by making changes in it as when there is some change among the Directors, Managing Directors, Managers and Secretary of the company.

20. Qualification for Secretaryship
Section 25 Company is exempt from the provision of Companies (Appointment and Qualifications of Secretary) Rules, 1988 to the extent that the rules regarding the qualification of a Secretary do not apply to them. Thus they are free to appoint any person as its Secretary whom it feels fit and proper for the same.


1.Restriction on profits earned
A Section 25 Company has to ensure that its profits and all other incomes are utilized only for the purpose of promoting its objects and not for any other purpose. It should also ensure that its profits are not distributed as dividend among its members.

2.Restriction on alteration of memorandum
Section 25 Company cannot alter its objects clause in its Memorandum without seeking the written approval of central government. If an existing company obtains a license under section 25 it has to ensure that its objects are confined to those mentioned in section 25 itself and if not make proper alteration to its memorandum and articles.

3.Compulsory compliances
If the Central Government has imposed some conditions and regulations upon the company for granting a license under section 25 then such a company is bind by such conditions and has to ensure adequate compliance with them.

Section 25 Company is regarded as a ‘company’ within the meaning of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and as such its income is taxable according to the applicable rates similar to those applying to other companies.



Memorandum of Association
Articles of Association
Memorandum of Association
Articles of Association with rules & regulations.
Trust Deed – which contains objects of the trust (bye-law)
Little Hard
Registrar of Comapnies
Registrar of Societies
Deputy Registrar / Charity Commisioner
Indian Companies Act 1956
Societies Registration Act 1860
Relavent state Trust Act
Nonprofit Activities
Literary, Charitable, Scientific and resource oriented
Social benefits & Charitable
Legal Procedures
Legal Procedures
Alteration can be undertaken only by the Founder.
If the founder is deceased alteration of objects is impossible
Minimum = 7
Maximum = No limit
Minimum = 7
Maximum = No limit
Minimum = 2
Maximum = No limit
As per Companies Act under Section 25
As Society with Society Registrar
As Trust with the Registrar.
No Stamp paper required for Memorandum of association and articles of association.
No stamp paper required for Memorandum of association, and rules and regulations.
4% of Trust property Value will be executed in non judicial stamp paper with the registrar
Prior approval required from Registrar of Companies.
Very easy to choose
Very easy to choose
Board of Directors &  Management committee
Governing Body
By Appointment
By Election
By Election
Quite Extensive as per the provision of Company Law
Annual Meeting As per Law. Governing Body meeting as per the rules of Society.
No provisions
Full Legal Status
Limited Legal Status
Limited Legal Status
Free or Control as per desire.
General Body or Board Control through issue of Capital.
Governing Body Control
Not applicable
Very risky and difficult
As approved by Company & State.
Not restricted
As notified in Trust deed